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Honestly, specialties in the aerospace are similar to a residency for a MD. You have to build the base of knowledge upon which the special skills will rest. Some of the skills learned in school will be directly applicable. Others, necessary to the specialty, will be learned on the job. Here is an example; a student who is interested in writing real time software for aerospace applications will be able to use some skills learned in school. But writing of the code represents only 10-15% of the effort to develop, verify, and certify of flight critical software. Most of the skills needed to do the other 85% of the job will be learned on-the-job.