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Typically, social and political philosophy intersect in the legislation arena. There are many different components which contribute to the enactment of new legislation, but some opportunities include Lobbyist, Legislative Analysts or Researchers, Policy Consultants, and then the actual Legislators themselves. If it is something you are passionate about, pursuing a degree in Political Science or Public/Urban Planning would be a great place to start.
A law degree is your quick path to politics. Staff jobs are more available to you as a lawyer. Local paid political jobs.....state-wide, or national political positions are a great starting point. Run for the local councils, school board, planning board, get your name out there. A small town mayor or a state senator, are other ways to become high profile. Write op ed articles in the local paper about local issues...start small and local. Your path, if you're good, will take you away.