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Yes, there are many sub-specializations within the field of psychology that are non-clinical; however, you should be advised that not all clinical psychologists work in health care settings. For example, some clinical psychologists work in forensics or forensic analysis. Others are academic and spend their careers teaching and conducting research. A PhD or PsyD in clinical psychology does not necessarily relegate a person to a career spent with clients lying on your couch!
Getting back to your question about other disciplines within psychology, there are many from which you can choose; it all depends on your preferences. In general, psychologists go one of two routes: academic (teaching and research) or applied (work in practical settings). I, for example, am an Industrial-Organizational (commonly called I-O) psychologist. I chose to go the academic route and I enjoy teaching courses on organizational development, research methods, and consulting as well as conducting research on workplace violence.
Think about what appeals to you (professionally) and then browse the American Psychological Association (APA) website to learn more about the various sub-specializations within the field. I hope this was helpful.