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Hello! I currently work as an HR Associate. I was a psychology major and was set on being a therapist. But when I took on an internship in HR, I fell in love. To answer your question, getting an HR job will be more about experience than course work. Math and English courses may be helpful in your work but they are certainly not used to evaluate your ability to do an HR job. Focus on getting administrative skills (work in an office, etc), your analytical skills (organizing data, which can usually be used when working in an office), and customer service skills (cashier, etc). Leadership and volunteering are also great things to have on your resume. If you are in college/school, try to do as many internships as possible. It will make it A LOT easier to get a job right out of college. If you are not in school, try finding work that will help you with the skills I mentioned above.
In terms of time, there is no set answer. I got a job in HR right out of college. My mother did HR with no degree after years in other roles. What matters most is getting as much experience as possible. Don't worry as much about an "HR" title because HR is a huge field with many different roles. Focus you attention on getting diverse experience and exposure to administrative and customer service work.
Good Luck :D