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Your premed adviser and premed clubs will be a great resource for these kinds of opportunities, so be sure to ask them for advice.
Most people get experience through shadowing or volunteering at a hospital. Shadowing can be difficult to find at times depending on how many people you know. Your doctor would be a great place to start, or if you live near a teaching hospital they tend to have more shadowing opportunities. Most hospitals are happy to have volunteers, and have great ways to get patient interaction.
You can also look into becoming an ER scribe, where you'll follow a doctor around taking notes for them. It'll let you see the pace of the ER, work closely with doctors and patients, and get paid while doing it.
If you live near a medical school, they usually have student run health clinics which usually have undergraduates volunteering as well. These are great because in addition to being able to see how a clinic runs, you'll get to chat with medical students and get their advice.
Medical mission trips are another way to get great experiences. It's never too early to start looking for summer opportunities.