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There are opportunities besides just the ones on the clinical side. Individuals can also pursue the research route, where they would conduct research and help formulate new evidenced based practices. My assumption is that this distinction has to be made fairly on in order to determine which course of schooling you would need to specialize in, since they are fairly different in what they focus on. Since you are interesting in the Navy, I would suggest taking a peek at their website's section that discusses the career fields and see what is says specifically about psychologist. If you still have questions after that, you should be able to contact a recruiter near you to get further information.
I actually have a friend that is a former Marine that received his doctorate in physiology and then reentered the military under the Army is currently stationed in Washington state. I can forward your following question to him to see from his vantage point what options he has but of course this will be from the Army's perspective. Would you like me to ask him?