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I provided this same answer to a very similar question on a different thread:
There are many different career opportunities within the Coast Guard. The best place to begin looking is to visit www.gocoastguard.com. There you will find descriptions on all of our enlisted ratings, as well as different career paths for officers.
As for the enlisted ratings, all applicants will take the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB). This test takes about three hours, and will help to gauge where an applicant stands with regard to aptitude toward certain specialties.
If you have any specific questions on the different rates (jobs), or other questions on enlisting or becoming an officer, I am happy to answer them.
All the best!
Jason Molinari, LCDR, USCG