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Your question is extremely broad. A lot depends on what claims are being made. If a medical claim is being made then various regulatory bodies control fabrication. In the USA that would be the FDA, which is responsible for ensuring the medicine is safe AND effective. Other countries have similar agencies, all of which take guidance from other organizations that understand the medical, scientific, and manufacturing issues. A companys facility, personnel, practices are all inspected before, during and after approval to market medicine. The barrier to entry is very high. As to the testing, this could mean figuring out what to pursue, to figuring out if it is safe AND effective, on to making sure what should be present is actually there in the stated amounts, and still there after sitting around for a specific amount of time, under specific conditions. How fabricated: proper amounts of ingredients are mixed in a specific order, under very specific conditions, then packages in very specific packaging, and stored under very specific conditions. How tested: this depends on what stage of the process you are asking about. There is discovery, there is development, there is launch, and there is post launch. All require qualified people at each stage to figure out what works, and how to test. Each type of product has its own rules, and different types of uses have their own rules ..Astor